River sand affects concrete

Developing Concrete using Sea Shell as a Fine Aggregate

depletion and manufacturing of cement causes pollution. This scenario affects the world''s ecological balance. As a civil engineer, we have planned to replace the river sand which is widely used in construction by sea shell. Sea shell is the dead remain of the marine organism.

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How can sea sand be used in concrete?

Sand is one of the major materials used in concrete mixture and work as fine aggregate that fills voids as well as helps in reducing shrinkage and cracking of concrete. For the purpose, river sand is used traditionally. However, in some areas, whe...

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The Hidden Environmental Toll of Mining the World''s Sand ...

 · Marine sand is less good for concrete, however, because it has to be washed clean of salt that could otherwise corrode metal in structural building reinforcements. That makes river sand the source of first resort — even though mining it is, according to the environmental group WWF, usually the most environmentally destructive.

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Aggregates

Natural gravel and sand are usually dug or dredged from a pit, river, lake, or seabed. Crushed aggregate is produced by crushing quarry rock, boulders, cobbles, or large-size gravel. Recycled concrete is a viable source of aggregate and has been satisfactorily used in granular subbases, soil-cement, and in new concrete.

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EFFECT ON COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE USING SEA SAND …

Generally river sand is used as a fine aggregate. Due to increase in the utilization of concrete in construction sector, the need for river sand has been increased enormously. Limitations have been laid on the large scale mining of river sand from river beds. In this context there are cases of illegal mixing of sea sand with river sand.

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Importance of Gravel and Sand for Concrete | Hunker

A typical concrete mix contains 60 to 80 percent sand and gravel, also known as an "aggregate." This aggregate compound is more than filler. It plays an important part in the concrete''s composition. The amount of sand and gravel in a bag of concrete determines the mixture''s strength and texture.

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What is the main purpose of sand in concrete making?

The strength of the concrete is inversely proportional to the water/cement ratio. In other words, the more water you use to mix the concrete, the weaker the concrete mix. The less water you use to mix the concrete, the stronger the concrete mix. S...

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Why the world is running out of sand

 · Sand, however, is the most-consumed natural resource on the planet besides water. People use some 50 billion tonnes of "aggregate " – the industry term for sand …

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EFFECTS OF MANUFACTURED SAND ON COMPRESSIVE …

Natural Sand: Locally available River sand having bulk density 1.71 kg/m3 was used and the specific gravity is 2.65. The Fineness modulus of river sand is 5.24. Manufactured Sand: M-Sand was used as partial replacement of fine aggregate. The bulk density of Manufactured sand was 1.75 kg/m3, specific gravity and fineness modulus

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Sand Moisture Content Test | Moisture Content Of Sand ...

 · Moisture present in sand affects the water-cement ratio in the concrete mix. Generally, moisture in form of thin layers attached to the sand particle, and because of the particle size of the sand particle is lesser it attracts more moisture from the atmosphere compared to coarse aggregate.

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Sand and Clay Don''t Make Concrete

 · Some people claim that sand and clay forms adobe, a strong material used in the Southwest US and Central America for making bricks. Adobe is made from soil that has approximately 70% sand and 30% clay. Too much clay will not make hard bricks. Heavy clay soil is around 60% clay, not 30%. Adding a bit of sand will not create soil with 70% sand ...

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Effect of use of Silica Sand as Fine Material in Concrete

[5] Her-Yung Wang, "A study of the effects of LCD glass sand on the properties of concrete" Waste Management, 2009, Pg. No. 335 to 341 [6] Farid Debieb, Said Kenai, "The use of coarse and fine crushed bricks as aggregate in concrete" Construction and building materials, 2008, Pg. No. 886 to

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how salt damages concrete

Salt Damage: Salt damage is most commonly due to exposure to de-icing salts. However, any chemical containing chlorides, including sodium chloride, potassium chloride, or calcium chloride, found in "safe de-icing chemicals," fertilizers, ocean water, marine air, etc., presents a danger to the concrete. All are mildly acidic and attack the ...

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Effects Of Aggregates 19 mm And 25 mm Maximum Sizes On …

sizes in the mix whilst affects the density, strength, and economy of the concrete structure. Fine aggregate are of natural sand, river bed sand, manufactured sand, or a combination thereof with particles that are typically smaller than 4.75 mm. The maximum percent of silt which is

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Introduction as an alternative to River Sand

 · Sand is a major primary material used in concrete construction. Due to increase of construction projects, the demand for sand is also increased. Most of the times for the source of the sand, river sand is used. River sand is required to be mined from natural sources. There are many problems arise due to mining of river sand (Leeuw, et al., 2009).

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Effect of Fineness of Sand on the Cost and Properties of ...

In the present investigations, effect of the grading of river sand particles has been investigated for a good Concrete mix. Sand has been sorted in three categories i.e. …

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Crushed rock sand – An economical and ecological ...

 · Crushed rock sand has surfaced as a viable alternative to Natural River sand and is being now used commonly throughout the world as fine aggregate in concrete. It is manufactured by crushing the quarried stone to a size that will completely pass through 4.75 mm sieve.

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Manufactured Sand (M-Sand) for Concrete -Properties and ...

Manufactured sand (M-Sand) is a substitute of river sand for concrete construction . Manufactured sand is produced from hard granite stone by crushing. The crushed sand is of cubical shape with grounded edges, washed and graded to as a construction material. The size of manufactured sand (M-Sand) is less than 4.75mm.

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Study of Sand Mining and Related Environmental Problems ...

coarse sand suitable for concrete slabs whilst flood plain mining involves the extraction of ... (1997) in a study on the effects of gravel mining on dams and river sys-tems. Instream sand mining alters the channel morphology directly resulting in erosion of river banks, channel incision, channel instability and infrastructural damages. ...

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Mechanical and Durability Properties of Concrete Made with ...

River sand is one of the main ingredients used as a fine aggregate in concrete production. A rising demand for construction material has led to the overexploitation of river sand, and this overexploitation has led to harmful consequences like increase in river bed depth, lowering of the water table, and intrusion of salinity into the river.

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Water in Concrete | For Construction Pros

 · The amount of water in concrete controls many fresh and hardened properties in concrete including workability, compressive strengths, permeability and …

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(PDF) SEA SAND AS FINE AGGREGATE FOR CONCRETE PRODUCTION ...

First was control mix (without Sea sand), and the cement concrete using river sand from 4 - 10%. Strength of other six mixes contained Sea sand. Fine aggregate (sand) cement concrete using sea sand can reach 30 – 35 N/mm2 was replaced with Sea sand by weight. The proportions of meeting requirements of concrete for construction of fine ...

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The Effect of Aggregate Size on The Strength of Concrete

showed the concrete aggregate size of 20mm has 45.7% higher compressive strength than the concrete aggregate size of 10mm. 1. Introduction The strength of concrete depends on many parameters, so a deep understanding of concrete and skills in this much …

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Use of sea sand as fine aggregate in concrete making

Concrete is a mixture of cement, coarse aggregates, fine aggregates or sand and water. The approximate ratios of these components are as below: Based on the ratios and the anticipated cement consumption in the country, the expected requirement of sand will be about 500-550Mt in the next few years or so. Traditionally, river sand has been the ...

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Concrete Exposed to Seawater – Effects and Preventions ...

Seawater may carry sand and silt especially at the shallow end of the sea. When it forcibly contacts the concrete surface abrasion occurs. Abrasion also occurs due to mechanical force buy wave action. Theoretical Aspects If concrete structure is built in seawater, then the most affected area of the structure is well above the high water mark.

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Poor-Quality Chinese Concrete Could Lead to Skyscraper ...

 · A sand scandal is brewing in China, with concerns that low-quality concrete has been used in the construction of many of the country''s largest buildings -- …

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Effects of Sand Quality on Compressive Strength of ...

Effects of Sand Quality on Compressive Strength of Concrete: A Case of Nairobi County and Its Environs, Kenya ... dened concrete. Sand is one of the normal natural fine aggregates used in concrete production e- [1]. Past r ... sample was prepared by thoroughly washing river sand with clean water to remove silt and clay and organic

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Sand Extraction: 1. Introduction

 · Sand is a key ingredient for concrete, ... a critically endangered crocodile found in Asian river systems ... harmful effects will continue to occur. We believe that the international community ...

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WHAT ARE THE FACTORS AFFECTING WORKABILITY OF CONCRETE ...

 · Note: River sand & gravel provide greater workability to concrete than crushed sand. 5. Grading of Aggregate. Grading of aggregate have the maximum influence on workability. The better the grading, the less is the amount of void in it. When total void are less, excess paste is available to give better lubricating effect.

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Sand mining: the global environmental crisis you''ve ...

 · The global urbanisation boom is devouring colossal amounts of sand – the key ingredient of concrete and asphalt. Shanghai, China''s financial centre, has exploded in the last 20 years.

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Types and Causes of Concrete Deterioration

Concrete can deteriorate for a variety of reasons, and concrete damage is often the result of a combination of factors. The following summary discusses potential causes of concrete deterioration and the factors that influence them. CORROSION OF EMBEDDED METALS Fig. 1. Corrosion of reinforcing steel is the most common cause of concrete ...

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EFFECTS OF SALT WATER ON CONCRETE

EFFECTS OF SALT WATER ON CONCRETE – CIVIL ENGINEERING PROJECT TOPICS. Concrete is an artificial engineering material made from a mixture of Portland cement, water, fine and coarse aggregates, and a small amount of air. It is the most widely used construction material in the world.

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